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Energy Conversions

Mains Grid = 10% within 230 Volts AC
battery store: typically 12 volts DC
Adapter = reduces electricty to fit the applience (they get hot/wasteful)
Inverters - increases battery output to required levels

 Inputs:

solar power grid

i.e 3 X 6 mono-crystalline solar cells At 0.5 Volts each. 36 in series would give about 18 volts which would be good for charging 12 volt batteries, wider the cell the more ampage (so wire multiple strips  in parallel to increase it), attach to a board/cover in glass/plexiglass  and you have your own panel - adjust series/parallel to suit your voltage/ampage needs

*attach a blocking diode in series  stop battery discharge ie. a  Schottky diode (for efficency) inside pannel (heat works better)
*don't mix and match cell sizes (goes by smallest)
* seal pannel with silicone caulk or something similer

wind power

one permanent magnet DC motors, salvage one or build your own.
wind speed and how fast the motor turns is important - high DC voltage, low rpms and high current seems more preferable going by some sources.
battery motor example
enameled wire types
stepper motors AC: higher the step, the lower the rpm if choosing between volts/current
Bridge Rectifier (made of diodes) turns ac into dc for charging, you need higher votlage then the battery to charge it. diagram here
voltage doubler circuit - double the voltage/half the current and suddenly every motor thrown away becomes valuble again...

Battery  definitions:
capacity measured in  Amp hours (ah) which is the total ampagage over a given dicharge period :
ah / dc period = x Amps DC  per an hour, quick discharges waste power
cycle life: number of times battery can be discharged.

connecting batteries in series to increases voltage:

what is a battery:
  A lemon  is a battery. Stick a copper coin in one end (the positive), and a zinc nail (the negative) in the other. the lemon acts as an electrolite. one lemon  = 0.906 volts where volts is the force/power flowing from the negative to the positive.
connect the positive to the negative of 4 lemons and your getting 3.5 volts of power enough to light an LED or try a stronger acid (suphuric perhaps) or change the metals in the electrodes, but not the same metal...

make a battery cell: coper coin or silver / paper soaked in chemicle (ie. salt water ala voltic) then zinc- stacked in series on top of one another to make your cell...

*maximise surface area for increase current

rechargable battery :   apply an electrical current to a cell where the reacion is reversable   (electron flow is reversed). i.e  car batteries: lead and lead dioxide with sulpur electrolite

charge controler:
measures battery voltage - turn on/turn off battery charging based on current voltage. avoid damaging battery when fully charged/stopping it go flat. exccess power is then wasted or has to be fed somewhere elsewhere, another battery?


Battery Banks:

Wiring batteries up in parallel, does not draw a consistent charge, first battery goes dead quicker/charges more then the rest because of resistence in wiring. positive from first battery, negative from last in the chain makes it more even, switch them around manually, or try a differnt wiring scheme i.e cross diagnal...

Electronic Basics:

diodes -  only allow electricity to flow in a single  direction . i.e. ude to change ac to dc and/or to stop solar powers drawing power when not in charing devices. cause minor resistence ( aloss of voltage i.e 0.7v check brand/type for more on wastage)

resistors - limit current flow, and protect your componets from damage

reed switches - turn on when subjected to a magnetic fied

capacitors -  store charge. pass through voltage increases as it charges to maxmium, and when current stops it discharge back down to 0  expenentially. (fast then slow) Its stats depends on the size/material of conductors and the size and space of the dieletic between. (two bits of foil either side of a page in a book are a capacitor)

make a semiconductor: dope silican with an impurity to form holes i.e. galium, boron (p-type) and/or add an electron i.e. arsnic, phosphorous (n-type) to make it conduct...

LED
- light emiting diode
Stick a p-type material (3 electrons) and n-type material  (5 electrons) together and you get photons given off as light - alegedly - when a current is passed through it at the cross section.

Transistors - make a sandwitch of p type, n type and p type material. (p n p(,  call the middle one the base. and the other ones the
collector and the emitter. apply a charge to the base and collector. 
and after a short delay as it charges (like capcitors)  the emiter will emit an amplifed charge.  n p n transistors is a sandwitch of the materials the other way. compare to leds   AS I GO DO YOU WANT TO RECONSIDER YOUR PHYSICS MODELS NOW? AS I GO WHAT CONDUCTS BETTER THEN AIR ..

Transformer -
convert one ac voltage to another.  via two sets of windings around an iron core - the difference in  number of turns effects the output as passing current in one, creates an electromagnetic field which generates current in the other. use to increase/decrease voltage as required based on number of of turns. (i.e. 12 to 230...)

electromagnetic
-  wrap a wire 100 times around a nail, pass a current through the wire.  your nail is now a mangnatised isn't it cool

build a motor
electro magnet - between two permenant  magnets - flip the current and watch it spin
build a turbine (motor in reverse) - spin an axle with wires on between 2 megnets and youg get a current to charge with (and they make it sound complicated....)

Relay Switch  acts as a switch between 2  circuits.  create an electrmagnetic field, pull a metal leaver down bridge the other circuit. magnet turns off.  leaver drops back (i.e. gravity/spring) turns it back off.  how about £3 relay - invertor/battery bank goes dead, switch  to mains instead...

grid tie invertor  feed unwanted energy into the grid and get paid for it. terms and conditions may apply - assuming you tell anyone, and is it really cheaper off the shelf...

Chemistry

make hho gas - 1
2 volt current in water  with an electrolite (i.e. salt)
 releases hydorgen/oygen gas at the . seperating at the plates.  this gas when ignited/burnt releasing 20+% more energy then the power required to seperate it...( with clean exhaust fumes) and incidently is created when you overcharge a battery because it is full...

Pulse charges are designed to apply a high voltage to break things down (like crystal deposits -   see resoring dead batteties) and to avoid things  getting too hot with chemical reactions (though you can always moniter voltage/temp/trickle charge levels and cut the power accordingly, if you feed into your car...)  why not cook with it?

remember boiling water 
can be used to make steam - steam moves turbines which produces electricity, as we go back to motors again...

Alternative Ideas:
solar water heaters
homemade air conditioners
rainwater top up for loos
Build a well - 2" galavanised pipe straight down until you hit  the auqa/water table and a pump  and avoid being ripped off, by water meters which don't calculate the flow rate aquarately
ROI Solar Pannel
Panel Price:
Watts Produced:
Grid cost (kwh):
Hours to run for kwh:
Hours Needed To Break Even:
Total Hours:
Hours In Day:
Days To Break Even:
Months To Break Even:
Years To Break Even
power conversion
Annual Usage (kwh)
Average Wat Consumption Per Hour:
average is nothing like actual - remember that when calculating draw!!! and things turn on and off all the time
water usage
The Devils Science Notes: How To Generate Power
Science Facts
my alchemy notes
Examples
(Volts * Amps = Watts)
ItemVoltsAmpsWatts (per second)stand by (watts)
Aspire 9300 lap top computer: 19 4.75 90.25
(old) tiny lap top 19 7.9 150.01
la spa hot tub   - 2 seperate pumps, and a heater 230 32 max  7360???
32inch lcd  lexsor television 22-24 9? 200
play station -2 8.5 5.3 45.05  2???
wireless router 12 1 12
microwave 1000
Fridge102 2 240
living room light fitting (3 x 20 watt bulbs) 60
sony ericson mobile charge 4.9 0.7 (700mA) 3.3
Dyson DC07 vacume cleaner1050
kenwood bread maker480
tesco jug kettle max 2200
panasonic sa-ak320 mino hifi
(5 cd changer)
242
Remember that the total continuous power consumption of the connected devices must be less then what your invertor can handle, most invertors have two values to cope with power surges (when tv's get turned on etc) battery voltage drops when it goes flat. so invertors will often turn off at 10volts to stop burning your batteries out /sound alarms etc

*stereos rated at top volume, less volume less draw, and depending what circuits/compents on will determine its curent requirements
Watt = 1 joule of energy per second
kilowatt (kw) = 1000 watts
killowatt hour (kwh) on power bills = your average consumption per second over that hour! and  now seems be a mesure for the power needed to power a killowat device (per second) over that hour.
so 1 kwh = 3600 kilojoules used or 3,600,000 watts used  and one assumes when they list it  as daily use  your supposed to divide it by 24 to get your actualy average use per hour....

so daily use of 5.4kwh (my last fuel bill) would mean  a continious draw of 225 watts (a second)  if  averaged over the course of the day and no the hot tub hasn't been on for years ...

it can't rain all the time (and likewise we can't get sun/wind for that *swoon* all the either, but if we did, it would be a peace of piss, unless we introduce batteries of course....)

Remember you have to be aware of short term spikes, and how quickly your stuff is charging and when, and how long you storage is if you go down that route... and going by my last bill grid energy is £0.1717 a kwh

Cable Drop Off (due to resistence)
Volts
Ampage
Length of Wire (1 mm2 = 10-6 m2 )
WireCross Sectional Area (Area = pi x r2)
Wire Conductivity
Resistence of circuit (Ohms):
Voltage Drop Off
Notes
Resistence of circuit :
Ohm's law
(V=I*R : V=volts, I=amps, R=resistance) 
 
Resistence of material:
R  = P(L/A)  [where p is conductivity of the material]

Resistivity values at room temperature. For metals, resistivity increases as temperature increases. for semiconductors and many insulators, the opposite is true while in theory a perfectly formed crystalline conductor should offer no resistance at all...

resistors in series : sum them up to get resistence (all components resist)

resitors in parallel  resistance = (R1 * R2  *...) / (R1 + R2 + ...)
as their are more paths for the electricity to flow down, thus a greater suface area...

p.s. and of course too thin a wire for current  overheats/melts which is bad - check current/wire specs first and see fuses

p.p.s To convert from mm2 to circular mils, multiply by 1973


Charge,   Q = C × V   where: Q = charge in coulombs (C)
C = capacitance in farads (F)
V = voltage in volts (V)

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